Wei Liu Xiaodong Zhang Fei He Quan Xiong Xuli Zan Zhe Liu Dexuan Sha Chaowei Yang Shaoming Li Yuanyuan Zhao
The eastern Helan Mountains are one of the most important plantings and production bases for high-quality grapes in China. In winter, grape root is prone to freezing damage owing to natural phenomenon such as early and late frost, and methods to assess disaster risk at the grape parcel level is one of the current research hotspots. However, there are two problems at present; first is the lack of grape parcel maps and second is that scale of disaster risk assessment is limited to the level of administrative divisions and grid systems. Therefore, according to the perennial characteristics of the grapes and clear texture of the open-air grape parcels based on public data sets (Sentinel-2A/B) and high-quality winery address information, combined with Google Earth engine (GEE) platform, Google Earth, and Ovitalmap, this study designs a collection scheme of open-air grape parcel samples and non-grape parcel samples, analyzes the environmental characteristics of the distribution of high-quality wineries, constructs a classification feature database in three aspects (time, terrain, and vegetation), uses the random forest classification method to classify open-air grape parcels in the eastern Helan Mountains in 2019, and conducts a late frost disaster risk assessment of the open-air grape parcel. The results show that: (1) The high-quality wineries are mainly distributed in the elevation of 1106–1240 m, with the average slope of 0.82°, the organic matter content of 10.79–14.27 g/kg, the P content of 24.87–37.58 mg/kg, the K content of 116–166 mg/kg, the pH 8.38–8.55, N content of 0.65–0.98 g/kg, annual average active accumulated temperature ≥10 °C of 3490–3590 °C, annual average rainfall of 189–201 mm, the annual average sunshine duration of 7.3–7.6 h, annual average air temperature of 8.8–9.4 °C, annual average temperature difference of 12.7–13.2 °C, annual average frost-free period at 263–270 d and annual average relative air Humidity of 50–54%. (2) The overall classification accuracy of open-air grape parcels reached 98.96% and the verification accuracy of ground truth parcel samples reached 87.89%. The open-air grape parcels in the eastern Helan Mountains are mainly distributed in Helan County, Xixia District, Yongning County, and Qingtongxia City. (3) The highest risk of late frost was found in Xixia District and the lowest risk in Yongning County. Helan County was higher than Qingtongxia City in the medium risk of late frost. The typical small area high risk includes Liangtian Town, the experimental field of Ningxia Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences in Zhenbeibao Town, Yuhuang Winery in Ganchengzi Village, and the State-run Warm Spring Farm in Helan County. Thus, the sample collection and augmentation scheme are feasible, the open-air grape classification accuracy is high and its result is consistent with field investigation, which can provide accurate parcel-level disaster risk assessment and provide decision support for agricultural departments and farmers.
Open-air grape parcel; Late frost; Google Earth Engine; Crop classification; Sentinel-2; OpenStreetMap; Eastern Helan Mountains